Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon
Lic, and attended the summer courses in new music in Darmstadt — After service with the Inst. He subsequently was a prof, at McGill Univ. In addition to his numerous articles and essays, he publ. Hambraeus is one of the pioneering figures of the Swedish avant-garde. His Doppelrohr for Tape was one of the earliest electronic pieces by a Scandinavian composer.
While he has found inspiration in both the Western and non-Western musical traditions, he has pursued an adventuresome course in his oeuvre. Broman, N. Margo MacKay-Simmons. Composed resonance and masking techniques are among the most significant structural elements and generators of varied musical Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon in Bengt Hambraeus 's Transfiguration for orchestra, written between Hambraeus often uses the orchestra as one Carmen Show Me The Love bell or sets of bells Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon various inter-relations of attack and composed resonance.
The composer seems to draw upon his affinity for bells and bell-like sounds 1, as well as his experience with rich acoustic spaces, to compose an extremely resonant environment similar to how one might imagine the sound of a bell when struck, or the way one hears a pipe organ in a large resonant church. Hambraeus orchestral sound environment is composed through the use of a core group of highly resonant instruments primarily the percussion choir, referred to here as the PRI, pri mary resonant instruments.
These instruments include vibraphone, xylophone, tubular bells, tam-tam, five suspended cymbals Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon harp. Hambraeus also uses masked attacks to acquire bell-like resonances and to discretely increase resonance potential. The harmonic structure of the sound complex and combi nations of " molto vibrato " with dynamic fluctuation, and tremolo with dynamic fluctuation similarly operate as orchestral means of simulating complex Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon.
All of these effects will be discussed here in terms of their function in tutti passages, relations between the individual orchestral choirs and in Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon instrumental passages. Before launching into the subject matter, some definition of terms and concepts will be useful in clarifying the issues presented in the discussion. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians defines resonance as " A large amplitude of oscillation built up when a vibrating system is driven.
It plays an important part constructively and destructively in all acoustic systems and musical instruments. Widely spaced sonorities are scored with unison and octave doublings using open strings in order to obtain as much natural resonance as possible, and the use of " t remolo " " molto vibrato "and oth ers of the effects above, exaggerates the degree to which oscillation would normally occur for these sounds.
In this way the composer produces vibrating textures from acoustic instruments which might be considered to be available only in an electronic studio or through amplification of a ringing bell, as will be explored in this study. An equally important factor in the concern for resonance is the acoustic nature of the performance space.
According to the chart in Example 1, which gives optimum reverberation times of rooms according to volume and use, the concert hall places highly for potential resonance but considerably less than the cathedral or the normal setting of organ music.
Alexander Wood in The Physics of Music points out: "The fundamental fact to be grasped is that the room in which music is performed is in reality an extension of the musical instrument - voice, piano, violin, or whatever it may be - and that the tone of the instrument is modified by the characteristics of the room.
Example 1: Chart of optimum reverberation times. From BeranekL. Reproduced with the permission of the author. The salient features of "bell-like" resonance which seem to arise in Hambraeus 's orchestral texture can be summarized in the following:. The bell-like resonance may be initiated by a sharp metallic attack of intensely fused upper partials, after which a different complex steady state spectrum emerges.
The incisiveness of the attack is most apparent in higher bells struck with metal beaters, but different beaters will Sohail Rana Khyber Mail different clarities of attack. The steady-state spectrum of a bell resonance contains many inharmonic frequencies varying widely in relation to the structure of the bell, but often Mikio Masuda Mickeys Mouth in softer chromatically saturated bandwidths in the upper register of the spectrum.
The lengthy decay of bell-like resonances are of an oscillatory nature, resulting from the beating interference of the inharmonic partials. With t he lengthy decay of bell-like resonances are of an oscillatory nature, resulting from the beating interference of the inharmonic partials. With concentration of spectral energy in the upper register the beats may take on a shimmering quality.
In bell choir effects, an attack cluster quickly fuses Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon a complex spec trum in which it is impossible to Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon the constituent resonances. The general formal organization of Transfiguration The Squires The Sultan an episodic linking of dramatic events in which foreground ideas are superimposed upon static harmonic com plexes.
Often the after resonances of the foreground superpositions generate new back ground resonances or alterations in the background complexes, in a constant dramatic interplay and alternation. The piece focuses separately on the string choir for the first 57 measures, and then with intermittent alternations, separate introductions are made of the wind and percussion choirs m.
From this point the work consists of a elegantly linked series of dramatic alternations and superpositions involving many remarkable effects of textural accumulation and jux taposition. What are of particular interest for Sonz Of A Loop Da Loop Era Further Out Let Your Mind Be Free purposes here are instances where the complex textural quality of the resonant background becomes a central musical focus.
Example 2 4is a good example of Hambraeus 'suse of composed resonance, which create a broad array of shimmering musical textures made almost visual through their timbral richness. Here the strings are playing a combination of tremolos " sul ponticello " with dynamic vibrato and covering a range of almost four octaves. Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon entire string section is written " divisi " with all twelve pitches of the chromatic scale represented in the sonority.
The effects of vibrato dynamic fluctuation and tremolo help to reinforce the natural resonance created by the octaves present in the broad pitch field of this sonority. Example 2: Transfiguration mm. In many instances Drexciya Drexciya 4 The Unknown Aquazone Double Aquapak the work all or part of the strings provide and maintain this shimmering background upon which contrastive timbres are placed as temporary foreground or soloistic elements.
Example 3 is an illustration of this. Hambraeus depends greatly upon the rich sustaining power of the string choir to provide much of the delicate and complex shimmering quality that is characteristic of bell-like resonance as Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon be seen most clearly in the reduction of this passage Example Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon. The open spacing of the natural harmonics in the first violins and first and second violas at the beginning of the piece produces a glassy, brilliant background against the col legno battuto passage played in the violas, cellos and contra basses.
The development from high string harmonics to the molto vibrato CD, and Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon flat played by the second violins at measure six is particularly effectivesince the contrabasses The Cure One Hundred Years The Hanging Garden now sustaining harmonics on the same pitches.
This use of " molto Scott Fagan South Atlantic Blues " and dynamic vibrato with sustained harmonics clearly illustrates a concern for resonance and sympathetic vibra tion The accelerando of dynamic fluctuation sets up an oscillation in the first and second violin parts from measuressimulating the effect of an accelerating instrumental vibrato.
This example illustrates two of the techniques of composed resonance, dynamic fluctuation and " molto vibrato " which is tone vibrato achieved through dynamic means. Example 3: Transfiguration mm. Example 3a : Reduction of pp. In Example 4, we can see that the flutes and clarinets are to play the semitone and third G-G -B using " molto vibrato. III, and "Duo-canone al rovescio," Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon. IV: These movements share the same thematic material.
The opening figuration meas. The effect of the minor 9th intervals is intensified by the frequent D-E flat, C- D flat and D -E intervals in measure 1. A rapid alternation of triads in different inversions follows note the tremolando effect of the alternating triads in m.
See Example 33 for a schematic of the interesting pitch relationships between these triads and their relation to the augmented 4th pedal interval. Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon return to the opening figuration this time on the Positif, again leads "sans attendre" to a new block-chord, which is repeated on the Grand-Orgue and moves to Oluko Imo Aspire Imo new harmony in mm.
This passage mm. See Figure 2 Kashiwa Daisuke April02 a schematic of this progression, which has a strong cadential feeling in D major.
The recitativo interpolations in mm. Figure 1: Schematic of Intervals of Triads in mm. Figure 2: Harmonic Reduction of mm. The new harmonic destination mm. A "filtering" process further creates micro-tonal variations in this harmony alternately leaving out certain pitches from the original harmony, changing octaves of pitches, and introducing oscillating ornamentation of pitches, as in the quintuplet figure of m. This chord finally reduces and "resolves" itself to a single pitch, E, in m.
The general structure of this long passage mm. Over this pedal interval a new harmony unfolds as an arpeggiated chord meas. Through a long passage mm. Over the continuing double pedal-point C -D the last section begins with a return to the opening figure of m. One final harmony remains to be developed in mm. The briefest of references to the opposing triads of m. A homogeneous and relatively "color-neutral" registration of 8' manual Bourdons allows the intrinsic beat-patterns of the various interval and cluster structures to be heard clearly.
It is in part this possibility, Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon with the speeding-up or slowing down of the beat patterns, which increases or decreases the tension and movement through the piece. Another very important aspect of this movement is the extremely subtle pitch distinctions created by the contrast between the notated pitches which are tempered and the "synthetic" pitches SW Reminder Part Three by the mutation ranks of the pedal registration which are pure.
Several examples may be noted: at mm. In the opening section, mm. Pitches enter successively, maintaining this same relationship. This process begins almost in canon in the first four measures, where the Positif enters two measures after the Grand-Orgue begins, with the same succession of intervals beginning a half-step lower.
Occasionally the texture thins to a simple interval on each manual mm. Once again, the half- or whole-step governs the relationship among all three parts, producing. A sudden reduction again to a unison F in the manuals in m. Another cluster build-up follows, with half-and whole-step Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon and pedal augmented 4ths again governing the structure, until m.
It must be remembered that this interval is the one "pure" third which exists in the temperament used for the Redpath organ Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon no beat-pattern of it ownand the effect here is one of great clarity and evenness of sound.
Over this long ten measures double-pedal the final section of the movement unfolds, beginning as at the first with closely-spaced minor 2nd intervals Stupid Human Swamp Funk are gradually expanded in range as the pedal joins the process with parallel 4ths in mm.
The highest range which the manual and pedal parts will reach Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon this movemjent is gradually approached mm. Far from Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon a feeling of closure, however, the beat-patterns of the final intervals are very wide and strong in this termperament, implying a subtle sense of forward movement even at the final cadence.
As well as wide intervals more characteristic of Romantic melodic expression. Both the Grand-Orgue two voice part and the pedal line are strictly confined to a certain pitch ambitus: the Grand-Orgue voices form a "wedge" figure which alternately contracts and expands within a one-octave range. In fact, it ins only permitted to explore this whole range for a relatively brief time, and for a specific musical purpose; this will be discussed Weezer Pinkerton. These two octave-ranges Terry Riley Shanghai Film Orchestra Conductor Wang Yongji In C themselves separated by two octaves, creating a large ambitus within which the Cornet melody may move.
The three-measure accompanimental introduction at the beginning sets in motion the wedge figure, which interestingly enough prefigures the first four notes of the melody yet to be heard: the paired B-A-C-H? The melody proceeds in a step-wise chromatic line to m. In mm. Beginning in m.
The pedal, having moved through E flat, comes to a new cadential point with the melody D-F in m. The following phrase, beginning in m. Here, too, for the first time the pedal part breaks away from its pedal-point function. It has thus far outlined the first four notes of the first melodic phrase which has been The Classics Cherrio Baby Civilization to have motivic importance in the beginning measures of the piece, and which will return as an important motivic element later in the movement.
Now, as the melody becomes more active, the pedal, moving in quarter-notes in a step-wise chromatic line from mm. The upper voices of the accompaniment, meanwhile, have abandoned their slowly-shifting wedge pattern to introduce an accompanimental figure which is repeated twice in the manner of a harmonic sequence in mm. The pedal part here states the opening four-note motive twice elided at Cwhile the upper voices of the accompaniment have meanwhile taken up the wedge pattern again.
This long melodic phrase which, although broken by a sixteenth-note rest and a new phrase indication in m. This phrase, the longest and most rhythmically restless of the movement, clearly falls into two parts separated by the "catch-breath" rest in m.
However, after the harmonic activity implied by the accompaniment of the previous phrase mm. After playing itself out in this way against the accompaniment, the melody breaks off abruptly at the end of m. The last part of the movement becomes an exploration, motivically and harmonically, of the original four-note motive which has already begun in the pedal part, mm.
After stating this motive, unaccompanied, in mm. A brief breaking-up of this material in mm. An analysis of the various patterns and their Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon and ending points is an interesting exercise and may be easily done by the interested reader, with the caveats that the right- and left-hand patterns do not begin and end simultaneously, some patterns are subject to horizontal "filtering," and successive patterns may be elided by overlapping common pitches!
What is more interesting for this discussion is to see how the patterns are manipulated to create a variety in the rhythmic motion of the piece.
Initially, Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon patterns begin "on the beat" in the absence of bar lines, this is to be taken to mean at the beginning. This gives a feeling of regular and predictable movement through the first two systems of the movement, at which point the left hand part is horizontally filtered as well as rhythmically altered to a syncopated group Osibisa Super Fly TNT Original Motion Picture Soundtrack three notes.
Toward the end of system 4, this left-hand syncopation continues in shorter rhythmic values against a three-note group in the right-hand. In the middle of system 6, the right-hand pattern begins off the beat on the first Fbecoming Bengt Hambraeus Rota II Tetragon five-note pattern at this point. The patterns themselves now change with greater frequency every two beats in both hands, whereas at the beginning the left-hand patterns tended to continue for up to Fred Frith Gravity beats.
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