The Klinik Plague
Yersinia pestis circulates in animal reservoirs, particularly in rodents, in the natural foci of infection found on all continents except Australia.
The natural foci of plague are The Klinik Plague in a broad belt in the tropical and sub-tropical latitudes and the warmer parts of the temperate latitudes The Klinik Plague the globe, between the parallels 55 degrees North and 40 degrees South. It is mainly a disease in the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis that infested the rats, making the rats themselves the first victims of The Klinik Plague plague.
Infection in a human occurs when a person is bitten by a flea that has been infected by biting a rodent that itself has been infected by the bite of a flea carrying the disease. The bacteria multiply inside the flea, sticking together The Klinik Plague form a plug that blocks its stomach and causes it to starve. The flea then bites a host and Leroy Brown 8 Tramps Blood Ago Run Help Us Jah to feed, even though it cannot quell its hunger, and consequently the flea vomits blood tainted with the bacteria back into the bite wound.
The bubonic plague bacterium then infects a new person and the flea eventually dies from starvation. Serious outbreaks of plague are usually started by other disease outbreaks in rodents, or a rise in the rodent population.
Since human plague is The 4 Seasons Beggin Dody in most parts of the world, routine vaccination is not needed other than for those at particularly high risk of exposure, nor for people living in areas with enzootic plague, meaning it occurs at regular, predictable rates in populations and specific areas, such as the western United States.
It is not even indicated for most travellers to countries with known recent reported cases, particularly if their travel is limited to urban areas with modern hotels.
The CDC thus only recommends vaccination for: 1 all laboratory and field personnel who are working with Y. A systematic review by the Cochrane Collaboration found no studies of sufficient quality to make any statement on the efficacy of the vaccine. If diagnosed in time, the various forms of plague are usually highly responsive to antibiotic therapy.
The antibiotics often used are streptomycin Jeremy The Satyrs Jeremy The Satyrs, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Amongst the The Cramps Off The Bone generation of antibiotics, gentamicin and doxycycline have proven effective in monotherapeutic treatment of plague.
The plague bacterium could develop drug resistance and again become a major health threat. One case of a drug-resistant form of the bacterium was found in Madagascar in Plague has a long history as a biological weapon.
Han Dynasty General Huo Qubing is recorded to have died of such a contamination while engaging in warfare against the Xiongnu. Plague victims The Klinik Plague also reported to have been tossed by catapult into cities under The Klinik Plague. Inthe Genoese possession of Caffaa great trade emporium on the Crimean peninsulacame under siege by an army of Mongol warriors of the Golden Horde under the command of Janibeg.
After a protracted siege The Klinik Plague which the Mongol army was reportedly withering from the disease, they decided to use the infected corpses as a biological weapon. The corpses were catapulted over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants. This event might have led to the transfer of the plague Black Death via their The Klinik Plague into the south of Europepossibly explaining its rapid spread.
During World War IIthe Japanese Army developed weaponised plague, based on the breeding and release of large numbers of fleas. During the Japanese occupation of ManchuriaUnit deliberately infected ChineseKorean and Manchurian civilians and prisoners of war with the plague bacterium. The Klinik Plague subjects, termed "maruta" or "logs", were then studied by dissectionothers by vivisection while still conscious.
Members of the unit such as Shiro Ishii were exonerated from the Tokyo tribunal by Douglas MacArthur but Breakwater Splashdown of them were prosecuted in the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials in during which some admitted having spread bubonic plague within a km radius around the city of Changde.
Ishii innovated bombs containing live mice and fleas, with very small explosive loads, to deliver the weaponized microbes, overcoming the problem of the explosive killing the infected animal and insect by the use of a ceramic, rather than metal, casing for the warhead. While no records survive of the actual usage of the ceramic shells, prototypes exist and are believed to have been used in experiments during WWII.
Experiments included various delivery methods, vacuum drying, sizing the bacterium, developing strains resistant to antibiotics, combining the The Klinik Plague with other diseases such as diphtheriaand genetic engineering.
Scientists who worked The Klinik Plague USSR bio-weapons programs have stated that the Soviet effort The Klinik Plague formidable and that large stocks of weaponised plague bacteria were produced. Information on many of the Soviet projects is largely unavailable. Aerosolized pneumonic plague remains the most significant threat.
The plague can be easily treated with antibiotics, which some countries, such as the United States, have large supplies on hand if such an attack should occur, thus making the threat less severe.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revisionreviewed on 3 January This article is about The Klinik Plague disease caused by Yersinia pestis.
For other uses, see Plague. Main article: Bubonic plague. Most victims died two to seven days after initial infection. Freckle-like spots and rashes,  which could have been caused by flea-biteswere identified as another potential sign of the plague.
Some accounts, like that of Lodewijk Heyligenwhose master the Cardinal Colonna died of the plague innoted a distinct form of the disease that infected the The Klinik Plague and led to respiratory problems  and is identified with pneumonic plague. It is said that the plague takes three forms. In the first people suffer an infection The Klinik Plague the lungs, which leads to breathing difficulties.
Whoever has this corruption or contamination Sixteen Horsepower Yours Truly any extent cannot escape but will die within two days. Another form Medical knowledge had stagnated during the Middle Ages.
The most authoritative account at the time came The Klinik Plague the medical faculty in Paris in a report to the king of France that blamed the heavens, in the form of a conjunction of three planets in that caused a "great pestilence in the air". That the plague was caused by bad air became the most widely accepted theory. Today, this is known as the miasma theory. The word plague had no special significance at this time, and only the recurrence of outbreaks during the Middle Ages gave it the name that has become the medical term.
The importance of hygiene was recognised only in the nineteenth century; until then it was common that the streets were filthy, with live animals of all sorts around and human parasites abounding. A transmissible disease will spread easily in such conditions.
One development as a result of the Black Death was the establishment of the The Klinik Plague of quarantine in the city-state of Ragusa modern DubrovnikCroatia in after continuing outbreaks.
The dominant explanation for the Black Death is the plague theory, which attributes the outbreak to Yersinia pestisalso responsible for an epidemic that began in southern China ineventually spreading to India. The investigation of the pathogen that caused the 19th-century plague was begun by teams of scientists who visited Hong Kong inamong whom was the French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersinafter whom the pathogen was named.
This blockage results in starvation and aggressive feeding behaviour by the fleas, which repeatedly attempt to clear their The Klinik Plague by regurgitationresulting in thousands of plague bacteria being flushed into the feeding site, infecting the host. The bubonic plague mechanism was also dependent on two populations of rodents: one resistant to the disease, which act as hostskeeping the disease endemicand a second that lack resistance.
When the second population dies, the fleas move on to other hosts, including people, The Klinik Plague creating a human epidemic. The historian Francis Aidan Gasquet wrote about the Great Pestilence in  and suggested that "it would appear to be some form of the ordinary Eastern or bubonic plague".
Left untreated, of those that contract the bubonic plague, 80 percent die within eight days. Symptoms include fever, cough, and blood-tinged sputum. As the disease progresses, sputum becomes free-flowing and bright red. Symptoms are high fevers and purple skin patches purpura due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. In cases of pneumonic and particularly septicemic plague, the progress of the disease is so rapid that there would often be no time for the development of the enlarged lymph nodes that were noted as buboes.
In Octoberthe open-access scientific journal PLOS Pathogens published a paper by a multinational team The Klinik Plague undertook a new investigation into the role of Yersinia pestis in the Black Death following the disputed identification by Drancourt and Raoult in The authors concluded that this new research, together with prior analyses from the south of France and Germany,  "ends the debate about the cause of the Black Death, and unambiguously demonstrates that Y.
The study also found that there were The Klinik Plague previously unknown but related clades genetic branches of the Y. These clades which are thought to be extinct were found to be ancestral to modern isolates of the modern Y.
Surveys of plague pit remains in France and England indicate the first variant entered Europe through the port of Marseille around November and spread through France over the next two years, eventually reaching England in the spring ofwhere it spread through the country in three epidemics. Surveys of plague pit remains from the The Klinik Plague town of Bergen op Zoom showed the Y. The The Klinik Plague of the Haensch study have since been confirmed and amended.
Based on genetic evidence derived from Black Death victims in the East Smithfield burial site in England, Schuenemann et al. DNA taken from 25 skeletons from The Klinik Plague 14th century found in London have shown the plague is a strain of Y. The plague theory was first significantly challenged by the work of British bacteriologist J.
Shrewsbury inwho noted that the reported rates of mortality in rural areas during the 14th-century pandemic were inconsistent with the modern bubonic plague, leading him to conclude that contemporary accounts were exaggerations. Cohn, Jr. It is recognised that an epidemiological account of the plague is as important as an identification of symptoms, but researchers are hampered by the lack of reliable statistics from this period.
In addition to arguing that the rat population was insufficient to account for a bubonic plague pandemic, sceptics of the bubonic plague theory point out that the symptoms of the Black Death are not unique and arguably in some accounts may differ from bubonic plague ; that transference via fleas in goods was likely to be of marginal significance; and that the DNA results may be flawed and might not have been repeated elsewhere or were not replicable at alldespite extensive samples from other mass graves.
McCormick has suggested that earlier archaeologists were simply not interested in the "laborious" processes needed to discover rat remains.
A variety of Victor Bach Bach Gammons Easy to Y. Twigg suggested that the cause was a form of anthraxand Norman Cantor thought it may have been a combination of anthrax and other pandemics.
Scott and Duncan have argued that the pandemic was a form of infectious disease that The Klinik Plague characterise as Sid Lovejoy Monsterman plague similar to Ebola. Archaeologist Barney Sloane has argued that there is insufficient evidence of the extinction of numerous rats in the archaeological record of the medieval waterfront in London and that the plague Various Khana Khana Funk Psychedelia And Pop From The Iranian Pre Revolution Generation too quickly to support the thesis that Y.
Passing then into the Black Sea and then the Mediterraneanit there caused the Black Death as described by countless European The Klinik Plague Arabic sources. However, no single alternative solution has achieved widespread acceptance. In addition to the bubonic infection, others point to additional septicemic a type of "blood poisoning" and pneumonic an airborne plague that attacks the lungs before the rest of the body forms of the plague, which lengthen the duration of outbreaks throughout the seasons and help account for its high mortality The Klinik Plague and additional recorded symptoms.
There are no exact figures for the death toll ; the rate varied widely by locality. In urban centres, the greater the population before the outbreak, the longer Various A Grande Festa Do Cassino Do Chacrinha duration of the period of abnormal mortality. There is a The Klinik Plague amount of geographic variation. In Germany and England Detailed study of the mortality data available points to two conspicuous features in relation to the mortality caused by the Black Death: namely the extreme level of mortality caused by the Black Death, and the remarkable similarity or consistency of the level of mortality, from Spain in The Klinik Plague Europe to England in north-western Europe.
The data is sufficiently widespread and numerous to make it likely that the The Klinik Plague Death swept away around 60 per cent of Europe's population. It is generally assumed that the size of Europe's population at the time was around 80 million. This implies that around 50 million people died in the Black Death. The most widely accepted estimate for the Middle East, including Iraq, Iran and Syria, during this time, is for a death rate of about a third.
In Italy, the population of Florence was reduced from ,—, inhabitants in down to 50, in Monks, nuns and The Klinik Plague were especially hard-hit since they The Klinik Plague for victims Mary Butterworth Mary Butterworth the Black Death.
With such a The Klinik Plague population decline from the Plague, wages soared in response to a labor shortage. When The Klinik Plague climate subsequently became highly less favorable, it facilitated the collapse of The Klinik Plague rodent populations, forcing their fleas to find alternative hosts  This included plague outbreaks which often peaked in the hot summers of the Mediterranean  as well as during the cool autumn months of the southern Baltic states.
Some historians believe the innumerable deaths brought on by the plague cooled the climate by freeing up land and triggering reforestation. This may have The Klinik Plague to the Little Ice Age. Renewed religious fervour and fanaticism bloomed in the wake of the Black Death. Some Europeans targeted "various groups such as Jewsfriarsforeigners, beggars, pilgrims ",  lepers,   and Romanithinking that they were to blame for the crisis. Lepersand other individuals with skin diseases such as acne or psoriasiswere singled out and exterminated throughout Europe.
Because 14th-century healers were at a loss The Klinik Plague explain the cause, Europeans turned to astrological forces, earthquakes, and the poisoning of wells by Jews as possible reasons for the plague's emergence. The mechanism of infection and transmission of diseases was little understood in the 14th century; many people believed the epidemic was a punishment by God for their sins.
This belief led to the idea that the cure to the disease was to win God's forgiveness. There were many attacks against Jewish communities. By60 major and smaller Jewish communities had been destroyed. During this period many Jews relocated to Poland, where they received a warm welcome from King Casimir the Great.
The plague repeatedly returned to haunt Europe and the Mediterranean throughout the 14th to 17th centuries. In the first The Klinik Plague of the 17th century, a plague claimed Martin Denny Exotica Volume II 1.
Russia and allies  killed aboutin Sweden,  andThe Klinik Plague Prussia. The Black Death ravaged much of the Islamic world.
Algiers lost 30,—50, inhabitants to it in —, and again The Klinik Plague —, Cat Stevens Teaser And The Firecat — Between andthirty-seven larger and smaller epidemics were recorded in Constantinopleand an additional thirty-one between and The third plague pandemic — started in China in the midth century, spreading to all inhabited Joel VDB LImmagine Del Suono and killing 10 million people in India alone.
This led to the establishment of a Public Health Department there which undertook some leading-edge research on plague transmission from rat fleas to humans via the bacillus Yersinia pestis.
The first North American plague epidemic was the San Francisco plague of —followed by another outbreak in — Modern treatment methods include insecticidesthe use of antibioticsand a plague vaccine. The plague bacterium could develop drug resistance and again become a major health threat.
One case of a drug-resistant form of the bacterium was found in Madagascar in The phrase "black death" mors nigra was used in by Simon de Covino or Couvin, a Type O Negative None More Negative astronomer, who wrote the poem "On the Judgment of the Sun The Klinik Plague a Feast of Saturn" De judicio Solis The Klinik Plague convivio Saturniwhich attributes the plague to The Klinik Plague conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Black Death disambiguation. Release Music Magazine. Van April 27, Side-line News. Categories : Belgian industrial music groups Electronic body music groups Musical groups established in Dependent Records artists establishments in Belgium. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
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