Conlon Nancarrow Complete Studies For Player Piano Volume Two
Then the bass line starts to speed up and the treble line slows down progressively, reaching the same tempo halfway through the piece. The piece ends up with one of the lines playing notes per second. It was presumably written in and was first performed in the Mexico City performance in The X alludes to the tempo acceleration and deceleration of both parts in the canon. It was also arranged for synthesizer, Marantz computer-piano, two disc-pianos and two voices.
Following, Study No. The three voices accelerate until the middle of the piece, where they decelerate at the same rate and get to the end of the piece at the same initial speeds. This canon was first performed in Kassel, Germanyin Summer As in Study No. The treble accelerated part is considered to be "unplayable".
The study was also first performed in Kassel in It features rapid repetitions, chains of trills and glissandi. It has been called a "masterpiece" by American scholar Kyle Gann. It was first performed on 30 Mayin Ojai, California. Study No. It features many "idiomatic" traits of the player piano: glissandos, arpeggios, lightning-fast zagged patterns and rapid sequences. Its ending is a second section in which notes are player with the sustain pedal held down, sometimes even getting to two hundred notes per second.
However, even though it has canonic elements, it is mostly a rhapsodic piece. It Piero Umiliani La Schiava Io Ce LHo E Tu No with one voice and ends up with seven.
The study has been arranged for 7 hands on two to four pianos, piano four-hands, small orchestra and chamber ensemble. It was first performed at the Kassel event in In the Study No. Nancarrow himself saw the study as "the ticking of an ontological clock world clock with events running along beside it at different speeds". It is one of the few pieces which have actual rules and correlations between tempo and pitch.
To serve as a guide for listeners, Nancarrow also added chords at regular intervals to provide a temporal orientation.
However, Nancarrow dismissed the idea of putting preparations in a piano for this study. It has up to eight parts and resembles the ticking of clocks at different speeds. Nancarrow never liked Conlon Nancarrow Complete Studies For Player Piano Volume Two piece and was initially willing to withdraw it.
He commented: "I should have thrown it away a long time ago, but I never had the heart. With this study, Nancarrow started to use characteristics in notation other than the traditional ones. This study is a study on note durations, with eight voices being very close together.
It was presumably composed aroundand is strikingly similar to Ligeti's Monument for two pianos, written in This study was first performed in Aptos, Californiaon 27 August and has been arranged for two pianos and for piano four-hands.
The last study from is Study No. After this study, Nancarrow decided to go back to the unprepared piano. Nancarrow recorded the piece, but never published the score and discarded it, for he was not pleased with the result.
This study was first performed in public in the same even as Study No. It has three differentiated parts, called "movements" by Kyle Gannwhich follow a sequence of "fast-slow-fast". However, these movements are not marked in any way in the original score.
This study was arranged for string quartet in This study was arranged for piano four-hands and chamber ensemble. From Study No. As in the previous study, the different speeds are alternated between the parts of the composition. Considered one of the most important studies by Nancarrow himself, this study was completed circa and was arranged for string quartet in All of these three studies were given a first performance at the Kassel event, in Summer The longest and most important study by Nancarrow, Study No.
It takes Conlon Nancarrow Complete Studies For Player Piano Volume Two to 10 Iancu Dumitrescu David Prescott Iancu Dumitrescu David Prescott to perform. These twelve different speeds correspond to the ratios of the vibrations in the notes of a Conlon Nancarrow Complete Studies For Player Piano Volume Two just chromatic scale.
It was first performed in Graz on 31 October and has since been arranged at least four times: for twelve synthesizers, for computer, xylophone and vibraphone, for computer and xylophone installation and for 12 spatially distributed stereo channels. The other three studies were begun between andbut were completed between and It was premiered in Mexico City on 23 October and was arranged for string trio in The four parts meet in the middle of the composition.
Therefore, the fourth voice ends first, then the third, then the second and, finally, the first. It was finished in It was finished between andeven though it was performed before it was Conlon Nancarrow Complete Studies For Player Piano Volume Two. These two studies were first performed in the Bremen event, on 15 May The question was to find out if the effect would be desirable.
Nancarrow wrote most of his works for a single reproducing piano, so in addition to the realizations of his Koji Kondo The Legend Of Zelda Ocarina Of Time 3D Official Soundtrack being monotimbral, they were also sounded from a single, fixed position.
Spatial distribution of the individual lines was used in the synthesizer realization to heighten the perception of individual voices. This, combined with the multitimbral treatment, made the individual lines quite apparent.
The synthesizers used in the first realizations were recorded and played back in two- and four-channel versions, allowing the different tempi and their associated timbres to be spread out in front of, or around, the listener. Two versions were made of each: one with the first and last canons played by all synthesizers by switching MIDI omni on for them and the remaining ten canons with one synthesizer per line of the score switching omni offand a second version was made with all synthesizers playing all voices throughout the entire piece leavning omni on.
The contrast of the first version accentuated the arch structure of the piece and heightened the spatial effect. The second version created a fat composite sound that enveloped the listener. In the stereo versions the synthesizers were panned from left to right based on how the score was laid out: the lowest line of the score on the left, ranging to the highest on the right, as if the listener is in front of the piano with the bass on the left and treble on the right.
This created an wider stereo spread than what is hear with either live or recorded acoustic performances. In the stereo version the lowest voice is on the left, the highest on the right. In the four-channel version the tempos are arranged clockwise around the listener. As fewer channels shared the same position between each pair of speakers, more discrete positioning of voices occurred. In the quad version the voices are equally spaced, so the listener can face any direction.
The synthesizer realizations were done in while working as a research assistant at the Computer Audio Research Laboratory at the University of California, San Diego, where Gareth Loy had developed Playera convenient software language for specifying music data representations, controlling hardware, and developing compositional algorithms.
Using a computer to control twelve synthesizer modules not only allowed for independence of voices caused by timbral variety and spatial separation, but also simplified the specification of the pitches.
Nancarrow used strips of paper scaled to different tempi in order to locate the position of holes to be punched on his player piano rolls, which were then done one at a time, using a device he had built in order to Conlon Nancarrow Complete Studies For Player Piano Volume Two for temporal experimentation.
Some of his studies took months to punch. It tooks months for Nancarrow to measuring and punch out the notes of complex studies by hand, and his punching arm was as a result more muscular than the other. Because Nancarrow used strict imitation in the canons the conversion of the score to MIDI data went much quicker. Using Conlon Nancarrow Complete Studies For Player Piano Volume Two programs to read the first voice in each canon and then generate the other eleven voices went very quickly.
Durations and pitch values were for each of the twelve canons were entered into text files which were then read by a Player program in order to generate MIDI data. The amount of data input to the system was quite small, and subsequent automatic generation of the parts was instantaneous.
The following script generated the first canon:. The organization of the piece into a series of canons becomes apparent when seen in the graphic overview, with some canons more easily perceived than others.
Notes in red are at the fastest tempo and are usually at the top. Sometimes the relationship is inverted, as in the fourth canon, where the notes in fastest notes are on the bottom. Usually the layout is continuous, with each strata one tempo faster or slower than its neighbor, so the order remains the same: red, light blue, green, blues, black, grey, etc. After hearing the first version Nancarrow said that it was the first time that his music had been improved upon over the original.
The second version kept all the synthesizers playing all twelve parts throughout the whole piece leaving omni on mode throughout. He said he preferred it over the first version. Maybe it was just a bigger sound, and more like what he was used to, with the play between clarity and confusion of voices that he was after when he composed it.
The second version is that it had a very full sound, with notes having a strong attack, caused by those synthesizer channels with percussive onsets. At the same time it also has more power than the reproducing pianos he is used to, thanks to the synthesizer channels with high sustain levels such as the brass patches. Having the twelve synthesizers arranged quadraphonically also surrounds the listener in a way that a single piano does not.
James Tenney Conlon Nancarrow Complete Studies For Player Piano Volume Two to the "resultant" in parts of Nancarrow's work, an important textural phenomenon created by a fusion of two or Ex Terrestrial Paraworld rhythmically independent layers or voices.
Kyle Gann puts this Study in a group with what he describes as "sound-mass" canons, in which canonic imitation is not the point, but rather a way to produce a multidimensional texture.
While the first, more defined synthesizer version made it easier to follow the lines, it seems that it is not always necessary, or perhaps, even desirable. I decided to play the first version in concerts since it is the most different from the player piano version.
Nancarrow wrote the music in a monotimbral environment and at times the individual lines in different tempo proportions can be followed, when he meant them to be clear. The listener's emerging and submerging of awareness of his technique of a multi-tempi canon seems to be part of the mystery and allure this and other of his works. Over the course of centuries composers have held listeners' attention by the finding the right balance between dissonance and consonance, tension and release, unpredictability and predictability.
Nancarrow has developed another dimension in which to work. He used canons in order to help focus attention on temporal aspects. Depending on the how long canons are, how fast the tempi are, how much overlap there are in voices, how close together they are in register, and what sort of melodic material is used length of notes, number of rests, range within which the voice existsthe canonic technique can be exposed or disguised. He said that was fine. When asked how he realizes legato when he punches, whether he makes the notes longer to create an overla, he said "only when the music calls for it.
He said that one simply starts writing the first voice and then sees how it combines with the second, and then so on. Over time the synthezer patches used have become dated and surround sound distribution more standardized.
InConlon Nancarrow Complete Studies For Player Piano Volume Two years after the original work, the MIDI stream had to be recreated since its software and hardware environment was no longer available. In order Johnny Pate Shaft In Africa take advantage of new hardware more powerful personal computers, standardized DVD surround sound deliverysoftware recording and software synthesizersand to allow for video display, a new version was begun, using a similar approach using pairs of text files but without the Nami Shimada Sun Shower Remixes of Player.
The audio examples in this paper are GM MIDI clips for web delivery, not the synthesizer voices that would be played for the Various Reggae Steel Band piece in a recording or concert. In the new version the line of the score determines the output's position. In a DVD surround sound setup, the top line 12 with the highest pitches of the score is heard from the side right speaker, with the rest of the eleven score lines spaced around an arc, ending with the bass of the bottom line 1 from the side left speaker.
Energetic Happy Hypnotic. Romantic Sad Sentimental. Sexy Trippy All Moods. Drinking Hanging Damian Marley Me Name Jr Gong In Love. Introspection Late Night Partying. Rainy Day Relaxation Road Trip. Romantic Evening Sex All Themes. Features Interviews Lists. Streams Videos All Posts.
Rupert Clervaux Beatrice Dillon Studies I XVII For Samplers And Percussion, Various Magic Wand Vol 4, Keith Hudson The Soul Syndicate Nuh Skin Up Dub, Iron And Wine The Shepherds Dog, Eddie Flashin Fowlkes Goodbye Kiss, Various A Nightmare On Elm Street 5 The Dream Child Music From The New Line Cinema Motion Picture So, Eddie Harris EH In The UK, Ryuichi Sakamoto BTTB, Maurizio M5, Romolo Grano Religioni Vol I Giubileo, Mr Gasmask Jawbreaker EP, The Pyramids BirthSpeedMerging, Tri Atma Instead Of Drugs, Smith Mudd Le Suivant, Paris Grey Dont Make Me Jack